COVID-19 tested the world’s ability to monitor and respond to an outbreak of a deadly infectious disease. The results were mixed at best. To avoid a repeat, we estimate that the world’s public-health agencies could invest $357 billion over the next decade. That’s about $5 per person, per year.

Five pillars of preparedness can be built for $357 billion, in our estimate.
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To read the article, see “Not the last pandemic: Investing now to reimagine public-health systems,” May 21, 2021.