Marvin Bower, who joined the firm in 1933 and later served as managing director, first articulates the consultant's obligation to advocate for what he or she believes to be true. After helping establish this obligation as part of the firm's core values
, Bower will later express it clearly in his 1979 book, Perspective on McKinsey
: "When discharged in a client situation, this responsibility [to dissent] is one of our most important controls of quality. When discharged within the firm—and it frequently is—it can strengthen our management substantially."